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Volume 12, Issue 1: Footnotes

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Quotations in Order of Appearance


1. Roberts and Donaldson, Ante Nicene Fathers, (Peabody MA: Hendrickson, 1995), [vol 5, p. 377].
2. Stephen Ozment, The Age of Reform 1250-1550 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1980), 156.
3. P. Schaff, Creeds of Christendom, vol. II (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1990), 265.
4. Roberts and Donaldson, Ante Nicene Fathers, [vol 5 p. 334].
5. Pope Gregory I “The Great” (a.d. 590-604) P. Schaff, ed. NPNF 2nd Series vol. XII (Peabody, MA: Hendrickson, 1995), p. 226. In his recent book, Pope Fiction (Basilica Press, 1999), Patrick Madrid argues that Gregory could not have meant what he seems to be saying here. When he wrote against the title “Universal Bishop,” Madrid’s Gregory only meant to oppose one who claimed to be the only bishop! For evidence, Madrid has recourse to excerpts from a few of Gregory’s other letters. He points out Gregory’s use of expressions like “apostolic see,” and the fact that Gregory held other bishops accountable. From these points, Madrid forcibly retrofits his latter-day popish paradigm upon Gregory’s opposition to a “Universal Bishop.” Madrid’s paradigm does not account for a more careful and complete reading of Gregory, including his opposition to a “Universal Bishop.” To Gregory, “apostolic see” and succession from Peter did not entail supreme jurisdiction. This is evidenced by the fact that, even as he offered counsel to other bishops and held them accountable, Gregory sumbitted himself to the counsel and accountability of others. Pope Gregory was a good presbyter, not a Roman Pontiff.
6. Westminster Confession of Faith
7. Roberts and Donaldson, Ante Nicene Fathers, [vol 5 p. 442].
8. P. Schaff, ed. NPNF 2nd Series, vol. XIV (Peabody MS: Hendrickson, 1995), p. 343. (The Council's condemnation of Honorius was explicitly approved by Pope Leo II in 683.) In Pope Fiction, Patrick Madrid grants the undeniable fact that the Council condemned Honorius, which is important to us Conciliarists here at Credenda/Agenda. But he notes that the Council’s condemnation was reneged on this point by Pope Leo II. The new story is that “while we can certainly criticize Pope Honorius for his failure to act responsibly in his office, his behavior has nothing to do with papal infallibility.” While Madrid’s point is certainly debatable, we might be happy to grant it to him for argument’s sake. Here, Madrid clears Honorius of the charge of heresy by charging him instead with irresponsible church discipline. If we follow Madrid’s take on the matter, then what Honorius “loosed on earth” was decidedly not “loosed in heaven.” By Rome’s standards, how can Honorius be a successor of Peter?
9. Session IV (ch. iv) of the First Vatican Council: Schaff, Creeds of Christendom vol. II (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker, 1990), p. 269.


1 Muller, Dictionary of Greek and Latin Theological Terms (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1985), p. 284. Muller’s summary of the doctrine of sola scriptura demonstrates this well.
2 Martin Luther, The Bondage of the Will, ([Publishing City Unknown]: Fleming Revell, 1957), p. 319.


1. In his commentary on Hebrews, John Owen says here: “By the description following, it is evident that the apostle intends all that had spoken or preached the word of God unto them, whether apostles, evangelists, or pastors, who had now finished their course; not with any respect to James, as some think, for he was yet alive, as appears, chap. xii.4. Nor doth the apostle, in this case of retaining the truth, give any direction for peculiar regard to Peter, much less to his chair or successors.” The Works of John Owen, vol. XXIII, p. 421.


1. Doctrinal examples given in John Armstrong, The Catholic Mystery, (Eugene, OR: Harvest House, 1999), p. 47.
2. Libreria Editrice Vaticana, Catechism of the Catholic Church, (NY: Doubleday, 1994), p. 487.
3. Catechism of the Catholic Church, p. 969.
4. Interview with Dr. Mark L. Miravalle, Professor of Theology and Mariology, Franciscan University, and International President of Vox Populi Mariae Mediatrici (Voice of the People for Mary Mediatrix) as cited in
5. Ibid. Dr. Miravalle also notes that this doctrine is already binding on the conscience of the faithful despite the absence of the perfection of the doctrine in the form of a papal dogma.
6. Pope Leo XIII, Augustissimae Virginis Mariae, n.9, encyclical given in Rome at St. Peter’s on September 12, 1897, as cited in (Emphasis added.)


1. Herbert Schlossberg, Idols for Destruction: Christian Faith and Its Confrontation with American Society (Nashville: Thomas Nelson Publishers, 1983), p. 46.
2. Kenneth A. Meyers, All God's Children and Blue Suede Shoes: Christians & Popular Culture (Westchester, IL: Crossway Books, 1989), pp.76-87. Meyers distinguishes three types of culture: high art, folk or traditional, and popular. He spends much of the first part of his book defining just what popular culture is. Popular culture is a fairly recent phenomenon as a result of its being derived from commercially driven forces. Before around AD 1850 there was no such thing as popular culture.
3. Ibid., p. 85. This question is posed by Meyers from E. Ann Kaplan who quotes R. H. Blythe. Whoever said it first cut to the heart of the matter.

Non Est

1. S. Butler, N. Dahlgren, and D. Hess, Jesus, Peter, and the Keys: A Scriptural Handbook on the Papacy (Santa Barbara, CA: Queenship Publishing, 1996).
2. Ibid., p. 165
3. Cited in ibid., p. 74
4. Cited in ibid., p. 53 in reference to Rabbi Nehunay’s (A.D. 70) whose comments on binding and loosing are described in the Encyclopedia Judaica: “May it please thee, O Yahweh, my God and God of my Fathers, that we may not declare impure what is pure and pure what is impure; that we may not bind what is loosed nor loose what is bound.”


1. Kik, J. Marcellus. An Eschatology of Victory (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company), p.18. I am indebted to Kik for his scriptural insights on the relationship between the serpent’s curse and the victory of the Church.
2. Psalm 110:1 is quoted or alluded to 16 times. It is quoted in Matt. 22:44, 26:64; Mark 12:36, 14:62; Luke 20:42-43, 22:69; Acts 2:34-35; and Hebrews 1:13. It is alluded to in 1 Cor. 15:24; Eph. 1:20-22; Phil. 2:9-11; Heb. 1:3, 8:1, 10:12,13; 1 Pet. 3:22; Rev. 3:21.

A Little Help for Our Friends

• The sixth annual Christian Worldview Student Conference will be held on the campus of Christopher Newport University in Newport News, VA, July 3-8, 2000. Under the oversight of the Calvary Reformed Presbyterian Church in Hampton the conference is open to students in 10th grade through college age seniors. During the conference, students will have over 30 hours of instruction on the Christian Worldview. Speakers this year are Ken Gentry, Don Moeller, Ed Welch, Steve Wilkins and Douglas Wilson. Further information can be obtained by contacting Byron Snapp and Calvary Reformed Presbyterian Church, 403 Whealton Rd. Hampton, VA 23666; Phone: (757) 826-5942; Fax: (757) 825-5843; email:
• New Saint Andrews is attempting to build its school library. If you would be interested in donating works of history, literature, theology, etc. the school would be pleased to provide both shelf space and a number of hungry readers to keep your new or used book company. Please contact Chris Schlect at (208) 882-1566 or

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