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Volume 13, Issue 3: Footnotes

Quotations in Order of Appearance


1. G.K. Chesterton, Manalive (Mineola, NY: Dover Publications, 2000), 73.
2. D.C. Beard, The American Boy's Handibook (Boston: David R. Godine, 1983), 212.
3. P.G. Wodehouse, Picadilly Jim (New York: Penguin, 1979), 7.
4. Moses Hadas, The Complete Plays of Aristophanes (New York: Bantam Books, 1971), 375.
5. Virginia Cary Hudson, O Ye Jigs & Juleps! (New York: Macfadden Books, 1964), 25.
6. G.K. Chesterton, Orthodoxy (San Francisco: Ignatius, 1995), 22.
7. G.K. Chesterton, Orthodoxy (San Francisco: Ignatius, 1995), 58.
8. T.S. Eliot, Old Possum's Book of Practical Cats (New York: Harcourt Brace, 1967), 17.
9. Lewis Carroll, Alice in Wonderland (New York: Norton, 1971), 118.
10. J.R.R. Tolkien, The Fellowship of the Ring (Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1987), 53.


1. Peter Leithart, "Testing the Modernity Thesis," Premise, Vol. II, No. 3, March 27, 1995.
2. John Marenbon tells this story nicely in his Later Medieval Philosophy (New York: Routledge, 1987).


1. This process is often started by forward-thinking, progressive, girly he-men, who teach the weaklings how to read and leave the comic books lying around.
2. Why is it okay to say "people of color," but you can't say "colored people?"
3. The he-men recognize only two sexes, but that is part of the oppressive paradigm. Postmodern biology is much more flexible and inclusive.
4. There is a biblical place for stereotyping. But when Paul says "Cretans are alway liars, evil beasts, slow bellies" (Titus 1:12), he is perfectly willing to acknowledge the exception. The post-modernist is not. The stereotype is universal.
5. Biblically, there is such a thing as corporate guilt, which requires corporate repentance. But this is based on the nature of our covenantal relationships under God. The postmodernist denies God, atomizes everybody, and then tries to regroup us and classify us by external and accidental characteristics.


1. C.S. Lewis, The World's Last Night (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1952), 80.


1. Greg L. Bahnsen, Victory in Jesus, The Bright Hope of Postmillennialism (Texarkana: Covenant Media Press, 1999), 74_115. See also, Richard Kyle, The Last Days are Here Again, A History of the End Times(Grand Rapids: Baker Books, 1998), 71.
2. Quote is from Ernest R. Sandeen, The Roots of Fundamentalism, British and American Millenarianism 1800_1930 (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1970), 8.
3. Kyle, Last Days, 67.
4. Iain H. Murray, The Puritan Hope, Revival and the Interpretation of Prophecy (Carlisle: The Banner of Truth Trust), 49. See also, Sandeen, Roots of Fundamentalism, 5.
5. Lewis Way was not the only member of the legal profession to have played a significant role in prophetic development. John Nelson Darby, considered the father of dispensationalism, and C.I. Scofield, who popularized Darby's teachings in the 1909 Scofield reference Bible, were lawyers.
6. It should be noted that the Reformers had long believed in the conversion and restoration of the Jews; the return of the Jews to Palestine was a millenarian innovation.
7. Speculation among millenarians concerning the Jews was rampant, with reports claiming discovery of the ten lost tribes among American Indians, or in Kashmir. Based on such reports, Joseph Smith taught these doctrines to his Mormon followers.

Ex Imagibus

1. Since this column is about "reading" movies and not recommending movies, we'll not be including cuss counts or nudity numbers, as legit as those concerns are. See for help in that.


1. One of the most comprehensive works of this type is a book by A.A. Hodge (son of Charles) Outlines of Theology, published in 1860 and currently in print from Banner of Truth, that employs the catechal format of questions and answers but approaches a simplified systematic theology in depth. Hodge used this format in the doctrinal instruction of his own congregation on Sunday nights. The historical summaries and analysis of heresies are particularly informative. In addition, it shows how certain Reformed doctrines stand in comparison to those of other churches. For both adults and families with older children, this book may be useful in personal Bible study or family worship. Spurgeon commended this book saying that he used it as the standard textbook at their college.
2. Ibid., 411, 422 ff.


1. Chromaticism is the use of all twelve notes (both black and white keys on the piano) as opposed to diatonicism which is the use of seven pitches of a major or minor scale. Chromaticism is less stable than Diatonicism because the half-step nature of the scale allows for a much greater possibility for movement from one harmony to another. Thus a tonal center is much harder to establish.
2. Tonality is established when a definite home tone or key center is established by the particular pitches of the scale, e.g.,"Do" of the "Do, Re, Mi Fa So La, Ti Do" scale.
3. Harmonies resolve when they come to a point of rest or consonance such as the last chord of a hymn or the second syllable of a sung "Amen."
4. Atonality is an attempt by the composer to destroy any sense of a key center or home tone. There is no point of rest in atonality.
5. Traditional harmonies are built on triads, a chord of three notes built in thirds. (Do, Mi, So is a major triad; Re, Fa, La is a minor triad)
6. A Diminished Seventh Chord is a chord of four notes built of all minor thirds. The symmetrical nature of the chord divides the scale up into four equal parts. There are only three possible diminished seventh chords. Each chord can resolve in four possible ways. Therefore the chord is very liquid in the direction it may go. It is very easy to destroy a sense of tonality with them.
7. Ferruccio Busoni: Selected letters, ed. and trans. by Antony Beaumont (London: Faber & Faber, 1987), 389.
8. Motives are short series of notes that provide germinal ideas for development of music. Motives are the cause of other musical ideas in the composition. Thus cause and effect are established through motivic development.


1. Thanks to Gregoy Soderberg for this example.
2. The common and understandable complaint when one suggests that pictures and portraits of Christ are illicit is to worry about leaving Christ off the page in a way that encourages docetism, the view that He was only a ghostly disembodied presence. But here that begs the question. If imaging God the Son is a form of constraining Him in a vain way, then we have to fight docetism by some other means than just insisting on imaging Him to solve the problem. To me that sounds like we should commit adultery in order to fight Gnosticism. The apostle John fights docetism in his letters, but he didn't do so by clipping in images of Christ. Again, the issue in the commandments is authoritative naming, not worries about the incarnation. Those battles are won elsewhere.


1. See E. Michael Jones, Living Machines: Bauhaus Architecture as Sexual Ideology (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1995), 68.
2. Tom Wolfe, From Bauhaus to Our House (New York: Bantam Books, 1999 [1981]), 7_19.
3. Jones, Living, 78.
4. Ibid., 74. The dormitory is a universal feature of pagan universities and Christian colleges alike. Jones notes that the libertine socialism that Bauhaus propagated found its most congenial setting in the American universities. Living in a college dormitory became the equivalent of a four-year course in Bauhaus socialism. Gropius's inspiration for such collegiate architecture is frightening. In a paper entitled "Twentieth-Century Collegiate Architecture," Gropius wrote: "The impact of the environment on a young man during his college studies is certainly decisive. If the college is to be the cultural breeding ground for the coming generation, its attitude should be creative, not imitative. Therefore, the student needs the real thing, not buildings in disguise. So long as we do not ask him to go about disguised in mediaeval garb, it seems absurd to build a brand-new college gymnasium in pseudo-Gothic style in order to `conform' with some of the existing pseudo-Gothic buildings surrounding it. For how can we expect our youngsters to become bold and fearless in thought and action if we encase them timidly in sentimental shrines feigning a culture which has long since disappeared? . . . The physical and spiritual functions determining the design of buildings are interdependent. It is an anachronism to express the physical functions with the newest technical means, but the spiritual ones by borrowing a historical shell from the past" (see Ibid., 78).

A Little Help for Our Friends

— Living Hope Presbyterian Church (OPC) in Nutley, NJ, meets at 169 Chestnut in Nutely, NJ, at 10:30 a.m. for Lord's Day morning worship and 6:00 pm for evening. A contact number is 973-427-0995, or [email protected] .
—If you would like to be our friend, please hold your breath and count to ten.

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