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Volume 14, Issue 3: Footnotes


1. A lectionary is the table indicating the distribution of readings according to the requirements of the calendar of liturgical seasons and feasts. They can be weekly or daily. The weekly lectionary is used for the readings in the worship service, the daily lectionary is used for the congregation to read at home or daily chapel services. The lectionary concept is rooted in Scripture and has been part of the church from the earliest times. Exodus 24:7 was the first reading of the book of the covenant; Deut. 17:19 commanded the King to read the law daily (we are all kings now and we all have Bibles); Deut. 31:11 tells us that the law was to be read every seven years in the hearing of all Israel; Acts 13:27 and 15:21 tell us that Moses and the prophets were read every sabbath; Col. 4:16 and 1 Thess. 5:27 both assume that the epistle will be read to the congregation in church.
2. The traditional church calendar is ordered on several levels: days, the week, sabbaths, seasons. The yearly cycle is broken into two parts: the Temporale which is the observance of various seasons, such as Advent, Christmas, Lent, Easter, etc.; and the Sanctorale which is the observance of saint's days. God mandated the first church calendar in the Law (see Exodus 23:10_19 which was a cycle of sabbatical years and the three feasts of unleavened bread, harvest or first fruits, and ingathering or tabernacles. It is reviewed in Deut. 16 and Leviticus 23 with an added discussion of the sabbath, weeks, trumpets, and day of atonement). In John 10:22 we read that Jesus attends the feast of dedication or festival of lights (Chanukah). This festival is not even one of the mandated feasts.


1. The first month of the Jewish calendar was Abib (Deut. 16:1), elsewhere called Nisan (Esth. 3:7).
2. First century historian Josephus wrote that northern Jews (e.g., Nazareth, Galilee, etc.) counted days from sunrise to sunrise (cf. Acts 2:15); whereas southern Jews (e.g., Jerusalem) reckoned from sunset to sunset (Luke 23:54 cf. John 19:31). Just to keep things interesting, John's narrative of the crucifixion used Roman time that reckoned days from the midnight hour as we still do today. Compare Luke's statement that Christ was crucified at the 3rd hour, but John's statement that Pilate condemned Christ to execution at the 6th hour. John used Roman time (midnight) while Luke used northern Jewish reckoning (sunrise). These regional variations are used by some to explain why Jesus could legitimately celebrate Passover the previous night, yet still be slain with the Passover lambs the next day. Chronographic gymnastics are unnecessary, however. (See explanation of Ex. 12:6 elsewhere in article.)
3. Don't let your kids read this, or you'll be celebrating Christmas Eve from now on!
4. Paper could also refer to the dandy flavor of those little quarter-sized gems as well.
5. Ex. 12:3-4 cf. 12:26. See also Ex. 12:43_48.
6. I Cor. 5:1-5.
7. While none of the Gospels provides a chronological narrative to show when Judas left the feast, Jesus' words in Luke 22:20-21 are conclusive: "And likewise [he took] the cup after they had eaten, saying, `This cup that is poured out for you is the new covenant in my blood. But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table.'" (ESV).
8. I Cor. 5:8.

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