1. George M. Marsden, The Soul of the American University: From Protestant Establishment to Established Nonbelief (New York: Oxford University Press, 1994), pp. 115 and 87.
2. David F. Noble, America By Design: Science, Technology, and the Rise of Corporate Capitalism (New York: A.A. Knopf, 1977), pp. 20-31.

Ex Libris

1. Michiko Kakutani, "So Where's the Zeitgeist? It Looks Just Like College." New York Times, October 29, 2004.


1. The Hebrew word for poison (rosh), shares a lexical morpheme (3-letter root) with resh (head, beginning, etc.). In Gen. 1:1 beresheeth (in the beginning) is used to denote the start of time in the creation account, as one would describe the headwaters of a river. Opiates are considered a candidate for this term because the poppy heads contain poison, and so do the heads of asps. The same Hebrew word is used with both plant and animal sources of poison.
2. Oxos (vinegar) was sour oinos (wine). All the gospel accounts use oxos here, whereas Mark alone also uses oinos. Where our modern vinegars are often from grain distillates, ancient societies produced vinegar the old-fashioned way—exposing wine to air until it soured. (In the days before Tupperware this often occurred unintentionally as well.)

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