1. See Rene Girard, The Scapegoat (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1986); Violence and the Sacred (Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1977); and I See Satan Fall Like Lightning (Maryknoll, New York: Orbis Books, 2001).
2. Kenneth Haugk, Antagonists in the Church (Minneapolis, MN: Augsburg, 1988), Hammond and Abshire; Character Assassins (Cape Town, South Africa: Christian Liberty Books, no date); Ron Susek, Firestorm (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Books, 1999); Marshall Shelley, Well-Intentioned Dragons (Minneapolis, MN: Bethany House Publishers, 1985). And to show that nothing ever really changes, the Puritans had some good things to say about this problem also. James Durham, Concerning Scandal (Dallas, TX: Naphtali Press, 1990 [1680]); and Jeremiah Burroughs, Irenicum (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria, 1997 [1653]).
3. Shelley, p. 78.
4. Haugk, pp. 69-79.
5. Hammond and Abshire, pp. 213-272. Also the archives of my Blog and Mablog at under the heading of "A Justice Primer."
6. For a very helpful treatment of this, see John Day, Crying for Justice (Grand Rapids, MI: Kregel Publications, 2005).
7. Jeremiah Burroughs, p. x.


1. Much of this material on James is drawn from, or inspired by, Jeff Meyers' wonderful series of lectures on James, delivered at the 2006 Biblical Horizons Summer Conference, Niceville, Florida.


1. Milan Kundera, The Unbearable Lightness of Being, trans. Michael Henry Heim (New York: Harper & Row, 1984), p. 252.
2. Francis Schaeffer, Art & the Bible (Downer's Grove: IVP, 1973), pp. 41-48. The fourth criterion, whether the medium is well adapted to the message, we will leave out. I'm already over my word count.
3. Ibid., p. 42.
4. Take, for instance, Banquet Still Life, by Abraham van Beyeren (1667).
5. For example, Bouquet of Flowers in an Urn, by Jan Van Huysum(1724), or Bouquet of Flowers on a Ledge, by Ambrosius Bosschaert (1619-1620). Each of these can be viewed at the online collection of LACMA.

A Little Help For Our Friends:

Holy Trinity Reformed Evangelical Church of Greenville, SC. A CREC mission church of Christ Church, Cary, NC. Weekly covenant renewal worship utilizing a rich biblical & Reformed liturgy. Plenty of Psalms, great historic hymns, and weekly covenant communion. Toby Sumpter—pastor. Contact Bob Corneroli at (864) 335-9645 or at [email protected]
Bethel Presbyterian Church (PCA) in Lake Charles, LA is seeking a pastor. Bethel practices a liturgical form of worship and the centrality of Scripture in all of life, weekly communion, psalms, hymns, creeds, corporate confession of sin, and responsive readings are all important aspects of weekly worship. A successful candidate would place a high priority on frequent fellowship and hospitality. Contact Doug Barberousse at (337)824.2016 or [email protected]
Christ Covenant Fellowship is meeting regularly in the greater Chicago area to see a new local CREC church established. Creedal, confessional, and faithful to the covenant of our Lord Jesus Christ. Committed to studying the Scriptures, singing Psalms and hymns, and praying for God's guidance and the ministry of His greater Church.
Trinity Covenant Church is a CREC mission church of Trinity Church in Wenatchee, WA, meeting for covenant renewal worship each Lord's Day at Cornerstone Seventh Day Adventist Church in Wichita, KS. For more information contact Sean Brandt (pastor pro tem) at 316.258.5765 or [email protected]

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