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Volume 8, Issue 3: Footnotes

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1 C.S. Lewis, English Literature in the Sixteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954) pp. 33-34.
2 John Bunyan, Justification By An Imputed Righteousness (Sterling, VA; Grace Abounding Ministries) p. 6.
3 James Buchanan, The Doctrine of Justification (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 1961 [1867]) p. 334.
4 John Owen, Justification By Faith (Grand Rapids, MI: Sovereign Grace Publishers, 1971) p. 21.
5 John Knox, Selected Writings of John Knox (Dallas, TX: Presbyterian Heritage Publications, 1995) p. 354.
6 Charles Spurgeon, Spurgeon At His Best (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1988) p. 116.
7 Joel Beeke as quoted in Don Kistler ed., Justification by Faith Alone (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1995) p. 62.
8 The Thirty-Nine Articles cited in Philip Schaff (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1990) vol. 3, p. 494.
9 Wilhelmus a Brakel, The Christian's Reasonable Service (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publications, 1995) pp. 347-348.
10 David Clarkson, The Works of David Clarkson (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 1988) pp. 277-278.
11 Ned Stonehouse, J. Gresham Machen (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 1987) p. 508.
12 J.C. Ryle ed., Select Sermons of George Whitefield (Carlisle, PA: Banner of Truth, 1985) p.116.
13 Augustus Toplady, as quoted in Don Kistler, ed. Justification By Faith Alone (Morgan, PA: Soli Deo Gloria Publ., 1995) p. 72.
14 Ibid., p. 83.
15 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion (Philadelphia, PA: Westminster Press, 1960) p. 763.
16 Charles Wesley, "And Can It Be."
17 David Brown, The Life of Rabbi Duncan (Glasgow: Free Presbyterian Publications, 1986 [1872]) p. 401.
18 Alister McGrath, Iustitia Dei: A History of the Christian Doctrine of Justification (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1993) p.12.
19 Edmund Clowney, "The Biblical Doctrine of Justification by Faith," in D.A. Carson, Right With God (Grand Rapids, MI: Baker Book House, 1992) p. 23,24.


1 C.S. Lewis, English Literature in the Sixteenth Century (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1954) p. 34. My thanks to Doug Wilson for bringing this wonderful quote to my attention.
2 In the recent CURE/Catholic Answers debate, Robert Sungenis, a Protestant convert to Rome, challenged the Protestants: "If regeneration is an internal change in the person, and then sanctification is an internal change in the person, what in the Bible tells us of a suspension of this internal change for a declarative act of justification? It's incongruous. How can you be regenerated and changed and then not changed for a moment in time to be justified by faith and then you're changed again in sanctification?" Notice how revealing this is of the Roman position. It assumes that a regenerate person is adequately righteous. Scripture precludes this, since justification requires perfecton, and regeneration isn't perfection. Protestants don't hold to regeneration (faith), then no regeneration (justification), then regeneration again (sanctification). Regeneration underlies the whole process, but since regeneration isn't perfection, even the regenerate need to be justified by a perfect righteousness. Regeneration and justification are on different planes. Rome trusts in imperfection.
3 Frank Sheed, Theology for Beginners (Ann Arbor, MI: Servant Books, 1981) p. 67.
4 Ibid., p. 149.
5 Catechism of the Catholic Church, Chap. 3, Art. II, 1990.
6 Ibid., Chap. 3, Art. II, 1997.


1 Thanks to Jeremy Huntington for pressing this discussion and thinking aloud with me and to Andrew Sandlin for taking a look at my group of essays on Rome and justification.
2 Since like the Protestants of old, I hold that only the Church possesses the potestas ordinis (the right of public interpretation), any proposed interpretation has to be faithful to the Church's declared interpretations in the creeds, in this case, the Westminster Confession of Faith. The interpretation offered here fits in both with the WCF declarations on justification and saving faith. There the Church says that faith is "ever accompanied with all other saving graces" (XI,2) and yet "this faith is different in degrees" (XIV,3).
3 Rome makes quick appeal to the various passages which reveal the connection between divine pleasure and good works, such as Romans 2:6, 14:10; 1 Cor. 3:8; 4:4; 2 Cor. 5:10, etc. On the Roman view, one's works meriting the condign grace of progressive and/or repeated justification could entirely fail to persist through fire, leaving one no remaining ground for justification. Yet this isn't Paul's view. Paul teaches that one's works could entirely fail, "be burned," and yet there is still some ground on which he will be saved: "he will suffer loss; but he himself will be saved, yet so as through fire" (1 Cor. 3:15). This matches the Protestant distinction between justification and sanctification, but it fails to support the Roman view which lacks a perfect ground outside a person's own venially-vitiated works.
4 One counterargument to the claim that James is focused entirely on sanctification is James's challenge in 2:14 -- "Can faith save him?" This appears to link James's use of faith to final justification instead of a developing sanctification. First, all sides agree that the word salvation is used in definitive and progressive senses. Second, James here uses the active instead of the passive voice for save, as is more common in definitive uses of the term. Third, earlier in his own epistle (1:21), James uses this same active construction in the context of Christians already growing in sanctification rather than final justification alone: "receive with meekness the implanted word, which is able to save your souls."
5 Roman expositors point to at least three justifications of Abraham (Gen. 12, 15, 17; cf. Heb. 11:8; Rom. 4:3; Jas. 2:23) to prove that justification is a process and not a onetime, forensic event. The terms here are rather unimportant, since Protestants, too, have spoken of initial and progressive justification, instead of justification and sanctification. But Rome's main point about three justifications also fails since James's use of justification can't be the same act as in Paul's discussion or else a real conflict arises. Instead, James's demonstrative use of justification removes that case from the plane of soteriology Rome needs. Only two cases remain then. The only evidence Rome offers that Abraham was justified in Gen. 12 is that Abraham showed regenerate faith (Heb. 11:8). This just assumes Rome's contention that justification is always internal and not covenantal. On Protestant grounds, one cannot be forensically justified without the instrument of regenerate faith, but one could start being renewed, could have regenerate faith, prior to having God apply external, covenantal justification. So regenerate faith (Gen. 12) doesn't automatically entail covenantal justification (Gen. 15), and nowhere does Scripture say that Abraham was forensically justified prior to Genesis 15. In fact, both Paul and James speak of imputation of righteousness at that point alone.

Non Est

* Karl Keating, Catholicism and Fundamentalism (San Francisco: Ignatius Press, 1988) p.167. Thanks to Michael Harkin for prompting the line of thought in this essay and to James Akin of Catholic Answers for corrective conversations on this topic.


1 John Calvin, Institutes of the Christian Religion, Book III, Chap. 10, Sec. 6.
2 B.B. Warfield, "Dr. Abraham Kuyper," in Selected Shorter Writings of Benjamin B. Warfield (Nutley, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed, 1970) vol. 1, pp. 447-454.


1 C.L.Hardin, Color for Philosophers (Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 1988) p. 1.
2 John Gage, Color and Culture (Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1993) p. 15.
3 Ibid., p.30.
4 Umberto Eco, Art and Beauty in the Middle Ages (New Haven: Yale Univ. Press, 1986) p. 46.


1 Croiset, cited in How and Wells, A Commentary on Herodotus (London: Oxford, 1928), vol. 1, p. 53.
2 A.D. Godley, trans., Herodotus (Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1981), vol. 1, p.3.


1 "Medical Blessings of God's Law," Credenda Agenda, vol. 7, no. 6.
2 R.A. Leach, The Chiropractic Theories (Baltimore, MD: Williams & Wilkins, 1994) p.11.
3 Doug Wilson cited in David Hagopian (ed.), Back to Basics (Philipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1996) p. 11-17.


1 Eusebius, Ecclesiastical History, III:5,3.
2 Kenneth L. Gentry, The Beast of Revelation (Tyler, TX: Institute for Christian Economics, 1986) p. 89-90.
3 J. Marcellus Kik, An Eschatology of Victory, (Phillipsburg, NJ: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing Company, 1973) p. 164-165.

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